The Inflated Role of Storytelling

People increasingly claim that the best and perhaps only way to convince someone of something involves telling them a story. In his new book Ruined By Design—a book that I largely agree with and fully appreciate—designer Mike Monteiro says that “If you’re not persuading people, you’re not telling a good enough story.” Furthermore, “…while you should absolutely include the data in your approach, recognize that when you get to the point where you’re trying to persuade someone…, you need a story.” Really? Where’s the evidence for this claim? On what empirical research is it based? And what the hell is a story, anyway? Can you only persuade people by constructing a narrative—a presentation that has a beginning, middle, and end, with characters and plot, tension and resolution? In truth, stories are only one of several ways that we can persuade. In some cases, a simple photograph might do the trick. A gesture, such as a look of anger or a raised fist, sometimes works. A single sentence or a chart might do the job. Even a straightforward, unembellished presentation of the facts will sometimes work. The notion that stories are needed to convince people is itself a story—a myth—nothing more.

It reminds me of the silly notion that people only use 10% of their brains, which someone fabricated long ago from thin air and others have since quoted without ever checking the facts. This notion is absurd. If we used only 10% of our brains, the other 90% would wither and die. Stories are not the exclusive path to persuasion. Not everyone can be convinced in the same way and most people can be convinced in various ways, depending on the circumstances. While potentially powerful and useful, the role of stories is overblown.

One of the common errors that people sometimes make when promoting the power of stories is the notion that stories work because they appeal to emotions. For example, Monteiro wrote that “…people don’t make decisions based on data; they make them based on feelings.” This is the foundation for his rationale that stories are the only path to persuasion. Stories can certainly appeal to emotions, but stories can also present facts without any emotional content whatsoever. We all, no matter how rational, are subject to emotion, but not exclusively so. Stories structure information in narrative form and those narratives can appeal to emotions, to the rational mind, or both. In other words, saying that stories are powerful is not the same as saying that appeals to people’s feelings are powerful.

Don’t get me wrong, stories are great; they’re just not the panacea that many people now claim. The current emphasis on storytelling is a fad. In time, it will fade. In time, some of the people who promote stories to the exclusion of other forms of communication will look back with embarrassment. No matter what they claim, no one actually believes that only stories can convince people. No one exclusively uses stories to persuade. We all use multiple means and that’s as it should be. The sooner we get over this nonsense that only stories can persuade, the sooner we can get on to the real task of presenting truths that matter in all the ways that work.

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